The Cayuga County Medical Society held its first meeting on August 7, 1806. It was organized of local physicians for the preservation of historical medical documents and materials. Notable members of the Society include Dr. Sylvester Willard, the first owner of the mansion which houses the Cayuga Museum, and Dr. Frederick Sefton, who was President of the Society in 1895, and a founding member of the Cayuga Museum.
When the Cayuga Museum opened in 1936, the Cayuga County Medical Society was a Sustaining Organization, and maintained an exhibit space for exhibits that rotated periodically. Exhibits featured copies of minutes, papers, documents, diplomas and old medical books dating from 1806.
The Cayuga Museum collection holds the minutes and papers from the Society, as well as countless medical objects and devices from the past century.